However, considering the complex relations between spatiality and sociality in place research, there is a distinction between departure points from either spatiality or sociality in context of the city. Thus, crime needs to be explored in relation to morphological, functional, perceptual, and social dimensions of the city.
In this way, a design-level approach to the idea of safe place by design is closely related to spatiality as a departure point for theoretical and empirical contributions in the study of urban crime. Thus, the study gives primacy to spatiality in comparison to sociality for exploring the relations between crime and the city in order to advocate for the necessity of scientifically grounded theories and empirically tested propositions and evidences for design-level interventions in different scales. In this way, the spatial patterns and urban morphology should be explored in order to understand the possible social outcomes whether for intervention or research purposes.
However, considering the spatiality-sociality relations in built environment, it should be noted that spatial patterns could not be taken for granted as arbitrary structures in the city Hillier, Moreover, the relationship between criminal activities and built environment is possibilistic rather than deterministic Biddulph, Thus, both morphological and social attributes of a neighborhood are closely linked to the perception of inhabitants Austin et al.
Besides, it has been argued that investments on design-level interventions, urban policies, and spatial patterns, which have been widely suggested in CPTED approach, are relatively more profitable and reasonable than increasing the quantity of police forces or conservatively policing and controlling the city Crowe, Thus, while a comprehensive review of the related literature reveals both smooth and abrupt fluctuations between different approaches to crime prevention in sociology, criminology, environmental psychology, planning, architecture, and urban design, the study advocates for design-level researches through probabilistic or possibilistic approaches rather than determinism or free-will paradigm for exploring the complex relations between urban crime and spatial structures.
Figure 3. Interrelations between social, morphological, functional, and perceptual dimension of safe place by design.
Thus, the study accentuates the multi-scalar and multi-dimensional nature of crime prevention through environmental design as it is closely related to planning and design-level interventions in different scales and dimensions. In this way, various dimensions of crime prevention in both theory and practice can be categorized in morphological, social, functional, and perceptual dimensions Figure 3. While the social and perceptual dimensions of crime phenomenon have been widely addressed in criminology, environmental psychology, and sociology disciplines in terms of fear of crime, sense of community, people participation, demographic profiling, socio-economic attributes, risk, and victimization, the morphological and functional dimensions of urban crime have been relatively less explored comprehensively as a complex combination of urban forms and functions in relation to social and perceptual outcomes.
Moreover, considering the complexity of the city as a combinational network of multi-scalar activities and emergence, the issue of urban crime needs to be explored in relation to various scales and dimensions of the city and urban environments. All rights reserved. Abdullah, A. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 20, A City Is Not a Tree. Architectural Forum, , Alexander, C.
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